2014 IES Street and Area Lighting Conference
September 14-17, 2014 | Nashville, TN
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We have collected and self-consistently analyzed data for per-capita consumption of artificial light, per-capita gross domestic product, and ownership cost of light. The data span a wide range (three centuries, six continents, five lighting technologies, and five orders of magnitude), and are consistent with a linear variation of per-capita consumption of light with the ratio between per-capita gross domestic product and ownership cost of light. No empirical evidence is found for a saturation in per-capita consumption of light, even in contemporary developed nations. Finally, we extrapolate to the world in 2005, and find that 0.72% ($437B/yr) of world gross domestic product and 6.5% (29.5 Quads/yr) of world primary energy was used to produce 130 Plmh/yr of artificial light.
Reduction of energy consumption for lighting has received more and more attention as a global effort to preserve our natural resources. In past years, high efficiency pulse-start quartz metal halide (QMH) lamps have gained momentum and have been applied in many new installations. However, over 80 percent of systems installed in the North American (NA) market are probe-start ballasts. The technologically advanced ceramic discharge metal halide (CDM) lamp has emerged in the market having excellent color properties and improved lumen maintenance compared to QMH lamps while limited to operation on pulse-start metal halide ballasts. Furthermore, the existing QMH and CDM lamps are designed to operate at nominal power on these systems, therefore no energy savings can be realized in existing installations. In realizing the future, this paper describes new energy saving medium wattage CDM lamps that can directly retrofit on either probe-start or pulse-start ballasts. The lamps, which operate at 205 watts and 330 watts respectively on 250/400 watt ballasts, can save 18 percent in energy while providing the equivalent mean luminous flux, superior lumen maintenance, greater service life, and enhanced color properties compared to the existing QMH lamps. By utilizing the latest advancements in ceramic arc tube design, the energy saving CDM retrofit lamps can reliability start on probe-start ballasts. Furthermore, the lamps have universal orientation in open fixtures and long life. With significant energy savings and improved lamp features, the energy saving CDM lamps are ideal for existing and new lighting applications.
Energy saving ceramic discharge metal halide lamps (CDM) have been developed to start and operate on magnetic probe and pulse start ballasts originally designed for quartz metal halide (QMH) lamps. The energy saving performance of these retrofit CDM lamps has been evaluated on several types of commercial magnetic ballast systems including constant wattage auto-transformers (CWA), reactors, and magnetic regulated lag (mag-reg) types. System evaluations result in linear models that depend on ballast type and lamp power. These models, which show excellent agreement with measurements, are used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the relative power savings that can be expected when replacing an installation of QMH lamps having a range of electrical characteristics, with the energy saving CDM retrofit lamps. The system evaluations show that the CDM lamps save 18 percent lamp power and an average system power savings of up to 17 percent.
This paper presents analysis and design of a modified synchronous buck converter used as an intermediate stage of a three-stage high-intensity discharge (HID) electronic ballast. In order to improve the efficiency of the electronic ballast, a synchronous buck converter operating in a new critical continuous conduction mode is proposed. Unlike a standard buck converter which is typically used as an intermediate stage of HID ballasts, in the proposed topology the soft-switching is achieved which significantly improves the efficiency of the three-stage high-intensity discharge electronic ballast. The modified synchronous buck converter and a two-loop controller are analyzed and implemented for a 400W HID lamp. Experimental results of a 400W HID electronic ballast operating in three modes of operation: open circuit (OCM), short circuit (SCM), and power control mode (PCM) is presented.